Popular Posts

Nov 25, 2012

Integrated Solid Waste Management - Definition

Definition of Integrated Solid Waste Management

Integrated waste management is the coordinated use of a strategically chosen set of waste management options each of which play specific roles in prevention and reduction of waste and its transportation, and in material and energy recovery from wastes towards achieving maximum resource efficiency.

This definition is a result of combining two earlier definitions from
  1. Coordinated use of a set of waste management methods, each of which can play a role in an overall Municipal Solid Waste Management plan. (The Global Development Research Center - GDRC)
  2. Integrated solid waste management refers to the strategic approach to sustainable management of solid wastes covering all sources and all aspects, covering generation, segregation, transfer, sorting, treatment, recovery and disposal in an integrated manner, with an emphasis on maximizing resource use efficiency. (Mushtaq Ahmed Memon - International Environmental Technology Centre - IETC, United Nations Environment Programme - UNEP)
Future reference: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/definition

Nov 23, 2012

Air Pollution due to Improper Waste Management - Open Burning and Landfill Fires


1. Emissions of Particulate Matter, Hydrocarbons, and Carbon Monoxide 
2. Carcinogenic Dioxins/Furans Emissions

1. Emissions of Particulate Matter, Hydrocarbons, and Carbon Monoxide 

A 2010 study by the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, “Air Quality Assessment, Emissions Inventory and Source Apportionment Studies: Mumbai” found out that open burning and landfill fires are a major source of air pollution in Mumbai. The study found that about 2% of the total MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) generated in Mumbai is openly burnt on the streets and 10% of the total MSW generated is burnt in landfills by humans or due to landfill fires.
In Mumbai, open burning of MSW is (Appendix 4, Table 11, Figure 16, Figure 17, Figure 18, Figure 19)
1.      the largest emitter of carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), carcinogenic hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrous oxides (NOx), among activities that do not add to the economy of the city;
2.      the second largest emitter of hydrocarbons (HC);
3.      the second largest emitter of particulate matter (PM);
4.      the fourth largest emitter of carbon monoxide compared to all emissions sources in Mumbai; and
5.      the third largest emitter of CO, PM and HC combined together in comparison to all emission sources in the city.
Figure 19, Open burning contributes to 19% of Mumbai’s Air Pollution due to Carbon Monoxide, Hydrocarbons and Particulate Matter
Figure 16, Open burning is a Major Contributor to Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Mumbai  

Nov 1, 2012

Status of Current Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Handling Techniques in India

This post is Section 3 from this blog's source and Columbia University's report Sustainable Solid Waste Management in India.


1. Summary
2. Aerobic Composting or Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) Facilities
3. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) facilities
4. Waste-to-energy combustion (WTE) facilities
5. Sanitary Landfills (SLFs)

1. Summary

Out of the 57 cities surveyed, all of them continue uncontrolled dumping to a large extent. However, twenty one (21) cities have reported applying earth cover (how frequently is unknown) to the wastes in the landfills and 24 cities reported compaction and alignment of wastes as opposed to uncontrolled dumping! 

Thirty eight (38) cities have mechanical biological treatment facilities treating more than 4,300 tons per day (TPD) of mixed solid waste, 6 cities have refuse derived fuel (RDF) or Waste-to-Energy (WTE) facilities treating about 1,600 tons per day (TPD) of mixed waste. Small scale biomethanation is practiced in more than 9 cities, but these efforts are generally scattered. They are successful near markets, slaughter houses and other such large sources of separated organic wastes.

Eight (8) cities have constructed sanitary landfills (SLFs). It is important to note that five (5) of them generating less than 1,000 TPD of municipal solid waste (MSW), and three of them generating about 2,000 TPD of MSW. Sanitary landfills (SLFs) in larger cities has proven unsuccessful and cities generating less than 500 TPD do not have enough resources to build and maintain SLFs. A regional facility model suggested by MOUD should be followed to make a SLF a reality when it comes to those cities.

Three (3) cities: Mumbai, Pune and Agra are known to be carrying out landfill gas (LFG) recovery, even though Mumbai's landfill where the LFG recovery operation is taking place was an open dump and not a sanitary landfill as it is in Pune and Agra.


CH4 Methane
Carbon Dioxide
Government of India
INR Indian Rupee
JnNURM Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
LFG Landfill Gas
Mechanical Biological Treatment
MSW Municipal Solid Waste
NEERI National Environmental Engineering Research Institute
Refuse Derived Fuel
SLF Sanitary Landfill
SWM Solid Waste Management
USD United States Dollar
WPs Waste Pickers
WTE Waste-to-Energy
WTERT Waste-to-Energy Research and Technology Council