Popular Posts

Scope of the Study

This report focuses on various options available for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) sustainably and attempts to provide a documented picture of their suitability to India. The report is divided into two parts, Part I and Part II. The first part will explain the present solid waste management (SWM) crisis in India, its impacts on public health, environment and quality of life and touch upon efforts towards SWM in the past. The second part deals with the Earth Engineering Center’s initiative, WTERT – India to help improve SWM in India and presents some articles viewership statistics of the internet blog (www.swmindia.blogspot.com) based upon this research.

Figure 2, Scope of the Study: Green Boxes Indicate the Methods of Waste Disposal Studied in Comparison to the Hierarchy of Sustainable Waste Management

 The first part introduces the Hierarchy of Sustainable Waste Management (Figure 10), which will act as the framework for the rest of this report. It then presents the current situation of SWM in Indian cities, discussing unsanitary landfilling and open burning of wastes; and their effects on the day-to-day lives of urban Indians. Part I also discusses specific technologies and mechanisms as probable solutions to India’s SWM crisis. The areas of focus were Recycling, Aerobic Composting (or Mechanical Biological Treatment), Small Scale Biogas (or Biomethanation), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) and Waste-to-Energy Combustion (WTE), as represented by the green boxes in (Figure 2). These technologies were selected based upon their success inside and outside India, suitability to Indian conditions, environmental impact and economics. Composting and small scale biomethanation were chosen specifically due to their success in India in treating organic wastes. Composting was also chosen to point out a likely side-effect of mixed waste composting. Mixed waste composting is also called as Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT). Use of compost from MBT facilities for agricultural purposes introduces heavy metals into human food chain. Small scale biomethanation was chosen due to its high position on the hierarchy of sustainable waste management and its collective potential to divert waste from landfills.
Informal recycling is studied as an integral part of SWM considering its effectiveness in recycling waste and its robust collection and supply chains in large Indian cities. Informal recycling is getting due recognition and gaining wider consensus around the world for its role in SWM in middle and low income nations.  RDF and WTE are chosen based upon their potential to divert wastes from landfill and their potential to generate energy from residual mixed wastes. Failures of RDF and WTE plants are analyzed and compared to the initial failures of MBT plants. Despite the best waste handling practices, a fraction of MSW that has to be landfilled will always exist; therefore an introduction to sanitary landfilling is included as an end-of-the-loop solution.
Short details of other sources of information about government policy and regulations, theoretical aspects of SWM, and specifications followed in Indian SWM projects are provided in Section 7.


  1. It is interesting that though waste management rules (MSW)dates back to 2000 there are only 5 or so sanitary landfills in the country in 2012

    1. Those sanitary landfills we see now are a result of JnNURM funds and Clean Development Mechanism. We can therefore conclude that proper policy, and incentives are also required in addition to robust rules and regulating agencies.

  2. Heya¡­my very first comment on your site. ,I have been reading your blog for a while and thought I would completely pop in and drop a friendly note. . It is great stuff indeed. I also wanted to ask..is there a way to subscribe to your site via email?

    Yield Management

    1. Hello Mr. Muthusamy,

      Yes, you can follow this blog via email. Please enter your email address in the space below "Follow this Blog by Email" and click "submit".

      "Follow this Blog by Email" option is on the right side strip below "Follow this Blog", which is below "Blog Archive".

      Thank you

  3. Hi
    the work you have done researching about waste is commendable. My sister and I wish to do something in the field of environment conservation and your blog has given us some useful insights

  4. Thank you for sharing such great information.
    It is informative, can you help me in finding out more detail on
    Study In India.

  5. Thank you for sharing such great information. It has help me in finding out more detail about Education Loans In India

  6. Thank you for sharing such great information.
    It is informative, can you help me in finding out more detail on
    Study In India.

  7. Thank you for sharing such great information.
    It has help me in finding out more detail about Study In India

  8. Thank you for sharing such great information. It has help me in finding out more detail about Education Loans In India

  9. Much obliged to you for sharing such extraordinary data. It has help me in discovering more insight aboutStudy Loans In India

  10. Study in india is made easy with are - Education Loan For Students. This will help you remove the barrier and achieve you career goals sooner.

  11. Nice and interesting information and informative too.
    Can you please let me know the good attraction places we can visit: education loan for study in india

  12. During these uncertain economic times, many people are finding themselves faced with a situation where they could use some financial assistance. Whether it be for an emergency, home improvement, consolidating debt or even a family vacation – a low interest personal loan is a safe and reliable way to meet your financial needs. At Alta Finance LLC, we specialize in Reliable and efficient Loan funding program.
    Contact us today using our company email altafinancellcfunding@gmail.com

    Thank you,
    Alta Finance.



CH4 Methane
Carbon Dioxide
Government of India
INR Indian Rupee
JnNURM Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
LFG Landfill Gas
Mechanical Biological Treatment
MSW Municipal Solid Waste
NEERI National Environmental Engineering Research Institute
Refuse Derived Fuel
SLF Sanitary Landfill
SWM Solid Waste Management
USD United States Dollar
WPs Waste Pickers
WTE Waste-to-Energy
WTERT Waste-to-Energy Research and Technology Council